Panchakarma literally means five methods of body purification which includes preventive and promotive measures. Many illness result from the build-up of toxins in the body that impair the functioning of its natural defenses: the lymph, circulatory and immune systems, Panchakarma promotes healing and restoration by eliminating these toxins from the body. unlike other detoxification processes,panchakarma is the process that achieves deep cleansing without discomfort and allows rejuvenating to flow freely throughout the body They are:-
v VAMANA (Emesis)
v VASTI(Ano-Rectal administration both kashayam or oil)
v NASYA(Nasal medication)
v RAKTA MOKSHANA(Blood letting)
Oleation (snehana), sudation (swedana) dipana, pachana, and Rookshana are the prerequisites of these PANCHAKARMA
procedures. These encourage the release of toxins and help the smooth conduction of the panchakarma procedure.
Ayurveda also has some Para panchakarma therapies like Abhyangam (Body massage), Kaya sekam (Oil bath), Shiro dhara (Oiling to head), Udwarthanam (Powder massage) etc. They give soothing effect on the body and are relaxing.
(Method of Emesis)
The vamana karma is the first procedure narrated under Panchakarmas by the acharya that order gives a unique place for this karma in Ayurveda.
“Thathra doshaharaanamoordwabhagam vamanasamnjakam”
That procedure which eliminates morbid doshas through the oral route is known as vamana. It is mainly intended for sodhana of morbid Kapha dosha, even though it eliminates pitta also to certain extent.Sodhana chikitsa is especially indicated to flush out the vitiated doshas which converts in to ‘mala’because of various interactions taking place in the body right from the accumulation of doshas.
· Pinasa(Chronic Rhinitis)
· Kushta (severe skin disease)
· Nava jwara (fever of less than 7 days)
· Swasa(Bronchial asthma)
· Galagraha(Painfull swelling)
· Premeha(diabetes melittus)
· Mandagni(impaired digestion)
· Amla pitta
· Dasta (poisonous bite)
Virechana karma is the second procedure in the sequence of panchakarma, Mainly aimed at morbid pitta dosha.
In simple words virechana is that procedure which expels out the doshas through Anal passage from Amashaya.
“Thathra doshaharanam adhobhagam virechana samnjakam”
Amashaya is the specific seat (sthana) of pitta and kapha doshas, even though virechana is the specific therapy for morbid pitta dosha; it also can be used for elimination of kapha dosha also.
The striking feature of Virechana karma is that it is realatively easy and painless procedure, and less chance of complications, and those can be easily managed.
· Skin disease
· Bleddding through upper out lets
· Inguinal hernia
· Spleen diseasas
· Thyroid swelling
· Cystic swelling
· Slow poison
Even though Vasti karma has been listed as third in panchakarma procedure, it occupies prime place in the present day context of clinical medicine, as it is being used in numerous unresponsive diseases of degenerative, musclo-skeletal, loco motor and neurological nature with promising results.
The term ‘vasti’ is derived from the fact that the vasti yantra or the apparatus used for introducing the medicinal liquids was made up of vast i.e animal urinary bladder in the olden days.
“Vastina dheeryathae yasmath thasmath vastirithirithah;”
Usually a vasti is administered through the rectum ,though it may also be administered per urethra which is known as ‘uttarabasti’
Vasti is of two types;Decotion and oil Base i.e. with kashayas and Snehas.Sneha vasti is given in small dose there fore known as matra vasti
· Retention of urine
· Distension of abdomen
· Numbness of any part of body
· Intestinal worms
· Cervical and Lumbar spondolosis
· Facial paralysis
The medicine or medicated oil administered through nasal route is known Nasya. It is one of the Panchakarmas mentioned in Ayurveda; Nasya therapy is a process wherein the drug (herbalized oils and liquid medicines) is administered through the nostrils. Since nose is the gateway of the head, the therapy is highly effective in curing a number of diseases pertaining to the head, if it is performed systematically. The therapy cleanses and opens the channels of the head, thereby improving the process of oxygenation (prana), which has a direct influence on the functioning of brain. The therapy is beneficial if done on a regular basis, because it keeps the eyes, nose and ear healthy. It also prevents the early graying of hair and bear.
“Naasayam praneeyamaanamoushadam Nasyam
Administration of medicinal substance through nose is called nasya.
· Manya sthambha(stiff neck)
· Danta stambha(stiff teeth)
· Hanu stambha(Stiff jaw)
· Sukragata roga(Seminal defects)
· Vartmaroga(disease of eye lid)
· Vyanga(pigmentation of face)
Since Sushruta,and Vagbhata have included Rakta mokshana also in panchakarma,
The surgical procedure of allowing the blood to bleed for therapeutic purpose is known as Rakta mokshana.Blood or Rakta is considered as an important dhatu of the body by Ayurveda.In case of any vitiation in this rakta dhatu,leads to many disease in the body.Thus this vitiated blood is taken out with the help of leeches for the normal well being of a person.
· Spleen disorders
· Mouth ulcers